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Klingon Language Certification Program Guidelines

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
    1.1 Overview
    1.2 Question Format
2. Level I: Hol patlh taghwI’, “Beginner”
    2.1 Source
    2.2 Material
    2.3 Sample Questions
3. Level II: Hol patlh ghojwI’, “Intermediate”
    3.1 Source
    3.2 Material
    3.3 Sample Questions
4. Level III: Hol patlh po’wI’, “Advanced”
    4.1 Source
    4.2 Material
    4.3 Sample Questions
5. Level IV: Grammarian
6. Appendix: Beginner’s Vocabulary

  1. Introduction
    1. Overview

This document describes the certification guidelines for the Klingon Language Certification Program (KLCP). The guidelines describe the certification levels awarded by the KLI upon successful completion of certification exams, the language skills that are tested for each certification level, and also will contain sample questions and answers for each level’s exam. This document is to be used both as a guide for developing the certification Test Bank, and as a guide to the student who wishes to prepare for the certification exams.

These are testing materials, not educational materials. While this document describes guidelines for the language skills addressed by each level of certification, it does not attempt to teach the student about those language skills.

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    1. Question Format

The questions will either be translation, fill-in-the-blank, or require answers to questions about grammar. An example of each type is provided here.

Translation

1a.

Translate the following sentence:

 

 

SuS’a’mo’ pum Sorvetlh

 

 

[“That tree fell because of the powerful wind.”]

 

1b.

Translate the following sentence:

 

 

“The guard chased the prisoner out of the jail.”

 

 

[bIghHa’vo’ qama’ tlha’ ‘avwI’]

Fill-in-the-blank

2a.

Don’t speak!

 

 

yIjatlh___

 

 

[-Qo’]

 

2b.

ya ghaH wo’rIv’e’

 

 

Worf is the __________.

 

 

[“tactical officer”]

Grammar

3a.

What is the connotation of using -mey with a noun capable of language?

 

 

[scattered all about]

 

3b.

What is the connotation of using a general possessive suffix on a noun capable of language?

 

 

[insult]

In the po’wI’ “advanced” tests, there will also be questions on reading comprehension. The test will include a short story, followed by 5 questions about the events described in the story.

In the pab pIn “grammarian” test, the questions take on a different form. The test taker is asked to judge the grammaticality of sentences, and explain any problems in the grammar. The test for this level also includes essay questions.

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  1. Level I: Hol patlh taghwI’, “Beginner”

    1. Source

The beginner’s test will consist of 20 questions from the following material. The grammar and vocabulary will come exclusively from TKD, and no other sources. For the vocabulary, there is a list of 500 common words from TKD, which all beginners should learn, and the questions in this section of the test will use vocabulary only from this list. See the appendix at the end of these guidelines for the beginner’s vocabulary.

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    1. Material

Topic

Source

Syllable stress

TKD 1.3, p. 17

Parts of speech

TKD 2, p. 18

NS1 –’a’ augmentative

TKD 3.3.1, p. 21

NS1 –Hom diminutive

TKD 3.3.1, p. 21

NS3 –qoq so-called

TKD 3.3.3, p. 24

NS3 –Hey apparent

TKD 3.3.3, p. 24

NS3 –na’ definite

TKD 3.3.3, p. 25

NS4 –wIj my

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –wI’ my

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –lIj your

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –lI’ your

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –maj our

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –ma’ our

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –Daj his/her/its/their

TKD 3.3.4, p. 25

NS4 –vam this

TKD 3.3.4, p. 26

NS4 –vetlh that

TKD 3.3.4, p. 26

NS5 –Daq locative

TKD 3.3.5, p. 27-28

NS5 –vo’ from

TKD 3.3.5, p. 28

NS5 –mo’ due to, because of

TKD 3.3.5, p. 28

NS5 –’e’ topic

TKD 3.3.5, p. 29

Verb prefix jI-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix bI-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix ma-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix qa-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix vI-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix cho-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix mu-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix Da-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix (null)

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

VS1 –’egh self

TKD 4.2.1, p. 35

VS1 –chuq each other

TKD 4.2.1, p. 36

VS2 –nIS need

TKD 4.2.2, p. 36

VS2 –rup ready

TKD 4.2.2, p. 36

VS2 –qang willing

TKD 4.2.2, p. 36

VS2 –beH ready

TKD 4.2.2, p. 36-37

VS2 –vIp afraid

TKD 4.2.2, p. 37

VS3 –choH change

TKD 4.2.3, p. 37

VS3 –qa’ again/resume

TKD 4.2.3, p. 37-38

VS4 –moH cause

TKD 4.2.4, p. 38

VS5 –laH ability

TKD 4.2.5, p. 39

VS6 –ba’ obviously

TKD 4.2.6, p. 175 (addendum)

VS6 –law’ apparently

TKD 4.2.6, p. 40

VS6 –bej certainly

TKD 4.2.6, p. 40

VS6 –chu’ clearly/perfectly

TKD 4.2.6, p. 40

VS8 –neS honorific

TKD 4.2.8, p. 43

VS9 –’a’ interrogative

TKD 4.2.9, p. 44

Rover –be’ negation

TKD 4.3, p. 46

Rover –qu’ emphatic

TKD 4.3, p. 48-49

Pronouns

TKD 5.1, p. 51-52

Conjunctions

TKD 5.3, p. 55

Exclamations

TKD 5.5, p. 57

Question chay’ how

TKD 6.4, p. 68-70

Question ghorgh when

TKD 6.4, p. 68-70

Question ‘ar how many

TKD 6.4, p. 68-70

Question qatlh why

TKD 6.4, p. 68-70

    1. Sample Questions

1.

Instructions

Fill in the blank.

 

Question

How many enemies do you see?

 

 

jagh _____ Dalegh

 

Answer

ar

2.

Instructions

Translate the following sentence:

 

Question

This door is shut.

 

Answer

SoQ lojmItvam

3.

Instructions

 

 

Question

Identify the parts of speech in Klingon.

 

Answer

Nouns, verbs, and everything else.

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  1. Level II: Hol patlh ghojwI’, “Intermediate”

    1. Source

The Intermediate test will consist of 20 questions drawn from the following material. The grammar and vocabulary will come exclusively from TKD, and no other sources. In this section, questions will use any grammar and vocabulary found in TKD (2nd printing).

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    1. Material

Topic

Source

Compound nouns

TKD 3.2.1, p. 19

VS9 –wIthing/one which is/does

TKD 3.2.2, p. 19,
TKD 4.2.9, p. 44

NS2 –Dubody part plural

TKD 3.3.2, p. 23

NS2 –mey general plural

TKD 3.3.2, p. 23

NS2 –pulanguage-user plural

TKD 3.3.2, p. 23

Inherent plurals

TKD 3.3.2, p. 23-24

NS5 –vaD beneficiary

TKD 3.3.5, p. 28,
TKD 6.8 p. 180 (addendum)

N1-N2 genitives

TKD 3.4, p. 30

Verb prefix bo

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix che

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix DI

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix Du

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix ju

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix lI-

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix lu

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix nI

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix nu

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix pI

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix re

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix Sa

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix Su

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix tu

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Verb prefix wI

TKD 4.1.1, p. 32-34

Imperative verb prefix gho

TKD 4.1.2, p. 34-35

Imperative verb prefix HI

TKD 4.1.2, p. 34-35

Imperative verb prefix pe-

TKD 4.1.2, p. 34-35

Imperative verb prefix tI

TKD 4.1.2, p. 34-35

Imperative verb prefix yI

TKD 4.1.2, p. 34-35

VS5 –luindefinite subject

TKD 4.2.5, p. 38-39

VS7 –taaccomplished

TKD 4.2.7, p. 41-42

VS7 –taH continuous

TKD 4.2.7, p. 42

VS7 –lIin progress

TKD 4.2.7, p. 42-43

VS7 –puperfective

TKD 4.2.7, p.41

VS9 –modue to/because

TKD 4.2.9, p. 175 (addendum)

VS9 –jaj may

TKD 4.2.9, p. 175-176 (addendum)

VS9 –ghach nominalizer

TKD 4.2.9, p. 176 (addendum)

VS9 –chugh if

TKD 4.2.9, p. 43

VS9 –DIas soon as/when

TKD 4.2.9, p. 43

VS9 –pabefore

TKD 4.2.9, p. 43

VS9 –vIS while

TKD 4.2.9, p. 43-44

VS9 –bogh relative clause

TKD 4.2.9, p. 44,
TKD 6.2.3, p. 63-64

VS9 –meH purpose clause

TKD 4.2.9, p. 44,
TKD 6.2.4, p. 64-65

Rover –Qowon’t

TKD 4.3, p. 47

Rover –Haundo

TKD 4.3, p. 47-48

Adjectives

TKD 4.4, p. 49-50

Numbers

TKD 5.2, p. 52-55

Adverbs

TKD 5.4, p. 55-57, 177-178 (addendum)

Sentences as object

TKD 6.2.5, p. 65-67

Pronouns as “to be”

TKD 6.3, p. 67-68

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    1. Sample Questions

 1.

 Instructions

 Fill in the blank.

 

 Question

 May you die before your children do.

   

 Heghpa’ puqpu’lI’ __________.

 

 Answer

 bIHeghjaj

 2.

 Instructions

 Translate the following sentence.

 

 Question

 De’ lI’bogh boleghpu”a’?

 

 Answer

 Have you (plural) seen the information that he transmitted?

 3.

 Instructions

 Identify the subject and object indicated by the following prefix

 

 Question

 tu-

 

 Answer

 Subject: you (plural)

   

 Object: me

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   4.   Level III: Hol patlh po’wI’, “Advanced”

    1. Source

The Advanced test will consist of 30 questions drawn from the following material. In this test, additional canon sources beyond TKD (grammar and vocabulary) will be included. This includes all canon sources listed in the FAQ, including primarily (but not exclusively) Klingon for the Galactic Traveler (KGT), and articles written by Marc Okrand and published in HolQeD.

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    1. Material

The Advanced test will consist of 30 questions: 20 main questions, 5 idioms, and 5 in reading comprehension.

The 20 main questions are presented in the same format as the previous two tests. Each specific issue will not be listed here; instead, examples for each category will be shown.

      1. Main Questions

Grammar and language use post-TKD

Example: nargh ‘eb “too late”
Example: NS5 –‘e’ “topic” used to disambiguate the head noun of a relative clause.

Little-known grammar rules

Example: It is culturally taboo to use the VS2 suffix vIp with a first-person subject prefix.

Regional variation in grammar

Example: In toasts, the last word is always the verb, except in Sakrej and No’hvadut dialects.

Societal variation in vocabulary

Example: Dargh HIvje’ “teacup” (general) vs. tu’lum “teacup” (upper-class only)

Specialized vocabulary

Example: ghe’naQ nIt “Grand Opera”

      1. Idioms

For the questions on idioms, you will be asked to provide the idiomatic interpretation of an expression. For example, pe’vIl bI’chu’, “do something all at once.”

      1. Reading Comprehension

In the reading comprehension section, you will have a short passage to read in Klingon. The text will be followed by five questions on the subject matter. The questions are written in Klingon, and you will provide your answers in Klingon.

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    1. Sample Questions
1. Instructions Translate the following sentence.
  Question It’s too late for you to spit out the poison.
  Answer nargh tar DatlhISmeH ‘eb
2. Instructions <![if !supportEmptyParas]> <![endif]>
  Question Explain the difference between yaS and ‘utlh.
  Answer yaS “officer” vs. ‘utlh “officer” (emeritus)
3. Instructions Explain the idiomatic interpretation of the following expression.
  Question pe’vIl bI’chu’
  Answer Do something all at once

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    5.    Grammarian

The grammarian test is a little different than the others. The test is in two parts. The first part of test will consist of a collection of sentences, some grammatical, most not. The grammarian will have to provide an explanation of the grammatical details of the sentence, including an explanation for why the sentence may be ungrammatical. There will be 10 questions of this type. The material will cover all known canon sources for Klingon grammar, including issues that may still not be clearly understood.

The second part of the test will be an essay, a written response to an essay question.

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    6.    Appendix: Beginner’s Vocabulary

The following 500 vocabulary items are from TKD. All questions in the Level I: Beginner’s exam use vocabulary only from this list. Due to copyright restrictions, only the English translation is included here; please refer to TKD for the Klingon translation.

ability, (n)
accept, (v)
accompany, (v)
accomplish, (v)
accomplishment, (n)
ache, hurt, be sore, (v)
achieve, (v)
achievement, (n)
acquire, obtain, get, (v)
act, take action, (v)
add, (v)
additional one, other one, (n)
admit, (v)
advice, (n)
advise, (v)
afternoon, (n)
alien, foreigner, (n)
allow, permit, (v)
alter, change, (v)
analyze, (v)
animal, (n)
answer, reply, (v)
approach, go away from, proceed, come, follow (a course), (v)
area above, area overhead, (n)
area below, area under, (n)
area beside, area next to, (n)
area between, (n)
arm, (n)
arrive, (v)
ask, (v)
attack, (v)br> attempt, try, (v)
bar, saloon, cocktail lounge, (n)
battle, (n)
be a problem, be a hassle, (v)
be absent, (v)
be accomplished, finished, (v)
be advanced, highly developed, (v)
be all gone, (v)
be alone, (v)
be angry, mad, (v)
be bad, (v)
be beautiful, handsome, (v)
be big, (v)
be black, (v)
be boring, (v)
be brave, (v)
be calm, (v)
be careful, (v)
be clean, (v)
be clever, smart, intelligent, (v)
be closed, shut, (v)
be clumsy, (v)
be cold, (v)
be confused, mixed up, (v)
be counterfeit, false, fake, (v)
be crazy, (v)
be dangerous, (v)
be depressed, (v)
be different, (v)
be difficult, (v)
be dirty, (v)
be dishonest, (v)
be drunk, intoxicated, (v)
be dry, (v)
be dull, uninteresting, (v)
be easy, (v)
be enough, sufficient, (v)
be essential, necessary, (v)
be excited, (v)
be expert, skilled, (v)
be famous, well known, (v)
be fat, (v)
be fat, (v)
be few, be several, be a handful, (v)
be final, last, (v)
be fortunate, lucky, (v)
be free, independent, (v)
be frozen, (v)
be funny, (v)
be good, (v)
be green, blue, yellow, (v)
be grouchy, mean, (v)
be happy, (v)
be hard (like a rock, (v)
be healthy, (v)
be heavy, (v)
be honored, (v)
be hot, (v)
be hungry, (v)
be identical, (v)
be impressive, (v)
be inferior, (v)
be interesting, (v)
be lazy, (v)
be light, bright, (v)
be many, (v)
be messy, sloppy, (v)
be nervous, uneasy, (v)
be new, (v)
be old (not new), (v)
be old (not young), (v)
be open, opened, (v)
be orange, red, (v)
be pleased, (v)
be present (not absent), (v)
be proud, (v)
be qualified, (v)
be quiet, (v)
be remote, far, (v)
be responsible, (v)
be right, correct, (v)
be rough, (v)
be sad, (v)
be satisfied, (v)
be serious, (v)
be sharp, (v)
be sick, ill, (v)
be simple, (v)
be small, (v)
be smooth, (v)
be sour, (v)
be special, exceptional, (v)
be strong, (v)
be stupid, (v)
be temporary, (v)
be the same, (v)
be thirsty, (v)
be tired, (v)
be together, (v)
be tough, (v)
be trivial, trifling, unimportant, (v)
be true, (v)
be useful, (v)
be varied, various, (v)
be weak, (v)
be weird, (v)
be wet, (v)
be white, (v)
be wrong, (v)
beam (aboard, (v)
become, (v)
believe, (v)
bend, (v)
betray, (v)
birthday, (n)
bite, (v)
blame, (v)
blood, (n)
board, go aboard, (v)
body, (n)
book, (n)
boot, (n)
borrow, (v)
boss, (n)
boy, (n)
break, (v)
breakfast, (n)
breath, (v)
bring, (v)
brother, (n)
building, structure, (n)
burn, (v)
buy, purchase, (v)
calculate, (v)
calendar, (n)
captain, (n)
care (about, (v)
carry, convey, (v)
cause trouble, (v)
chair, (n)
charming (used only ironically), (excl)
chase, follow, (v)
cheat, (v)
cheek, (n)
chew, (v)
child, offspring, (n)
chocolate, (n)
choose, select, (v)
chronometer, (n)
city, (n)
climb, (v)
close in, get closer, come nearer, (v)
cloud, (n)
communicate, (v)
compete, (v)
computer, (n)
concentrate on, focus on, think only about, (v)
connect, (v)
conquer, (v)
contain (have inside), (v)
control, (v)
cook, (v)
country, countryside, (n)
coward, (n)
cry, (v)
danger, (n)
data, information, (n)
daughter, (n)
day, (n)
debate, (v)
decide, (v)
demand, require, (v)
deny, (v)
depart, (v)
depend on, rely on, (v)
describe, (v)
destroy, (v)
dictionary, (n)
die, (v)
dinner, (n)
disagree, (v)
disappear, vanish, (v)
discourage, (v)
discover, find, observe, notice, (v)
dislike, (v)
dock, (n)
dock, (v)
doctor, physician, (n)
done, (excl)
door, gate, (n)
doubt, (v)
dream, (v)
drink, (v)
drop, (v)
duty station, station, (n)
duty, quest, mission, task, chore, (n)
Earth, (n)
eat, (v)
enemy, (n)
enjoy, (v)
enter, go in, (v)
err, be mistaken, make a mistake, (v)
establish, set up, (v)
everyone, all, everything, (n)
expect, (v)
explain, (v)
face, (n)
fact, (n)
fall, (v)
family, (n)
father, (n)
feed (someone else), (v)
female, woman, (n)
fight, (v)
fill, (v)
finger, (n)
fire, (n)
fire (torpedo, rocket, missile), (v)
fix, repair, (v)
floor, (n)
follow (rules, (v)
food, (n)
fool, (n)
foot, (n)
forehead, (n)
forest, woods, (n)
forget, (v)
friend, (n)
garbage, (n)
gas, (n)
genius, (n)
gift, (n)
girl, (n)
give, (v)
glass (tumbler, (n)
glow, (v)
go, (v)
goal, (n)
good (expressing satisfaction), (excl)
grammar, (n)
grandfather, (n)
group, party, (n)
guard, (v)
gunner, (n)
hand, (n)
hate, detest, (v)
have a hangover, be hung over, (v)
have a headache, (v)
have, possess, (v)
he, she, him, her, (pro)
head, (n)
hear, (v)
helm, (n)
helmsman, (n)
help, aid, (v)
hide, cloak, (v)
history, (n)
home, (n)
honor, (n)
hope, (v)
hour, (n)
hunt, (v)
hurry, (v)
husband, (n)
I, me, (pro)
idea, (n)
identify, (v)
inhabitant, (n)
insult, (v)
intend, mean to, (v)
it, (pro)
jacket, coat, (n)
judge, estimate, (v)
keep something secret, (v)
keep, save, (v)
kill, (v)
Klingon, (n)
knee, (n)
knife, dagger, (n)
know, (v)
label, (v)
lake, (n)
language, (n)
laugh, (v)
lead, guide, (v)
learn, (v)
leave, depart, (v)
leg, (n)
let’s go, come on, (excl)
lie, fib, (v)
life, (n)
line, rope, (n)
listen, (v)
live, (v)
look for seek, search for, (v)
loved one, (n)
make peace, (v)
male, man, (n)
manuscript, (n)
meet (for the first time), (v)
meet, encounter, (v)
meeting, (n)
melt, (v)
mind, brain, (n)
minute (of time, (n)
month, (n)
moon, (n)
morning, (n)
mother, (n)
mouth, (n)
name, (n)
navigate, (v)
night, (n)
no, (excl)
no, I won’t, I refuse, I disagree, (excl)
nonsense, (n)
nose, (n)
nostril, (n)
nothing, none, (n)
noun, (n)
oath, (n)
occur, happen, (v)
officer, (n)
opinion, (n)
opportunity, (n)
order, command, (v)
paper, (n)
pay attention, concentrate, (v)
pay for, (v)
peace, (n)
period of time, (n)
person (humanoid), (n) (ghot, nuv)
pet, (n)
phenomenon, event, occurrence, (n)
plan, (v)
planet, (n)
pleasure, (n)
practice, train, prepare, (v)
prefer, (v)
present, (v)
press down, (v)
prevent, block, prohibit, (v)
prisoner, (n)
prosper, be prosperous, (v)
protect, (v)
push, (v)
question, interrogate, (v)
rain, (v)
reach, (v)
read, (v)
ready, (excl)
realize, (v)
reason, (n)
receive, (v)
recognize, (v)
recommend, suggest, (v)
regret, (v)
remain, (v)
remember, (v)
remove, take off, (v)
resemble, (v)
respect, (v)
rest, relax, (v)
restaurant, (n)
return, (v)
revenge, (n)
roam, travel, rove, (v)
room, (n)
run, jog, (v)
salute, (v)
scare, (v)
science, (n)
scientist, (n)
scream, cry out, shout, yell, (v)
secret, (n)
see, (v)
sell, (v)
send, (v)
sentence, (n)
sergeant, (n)
serve (a master), (v)
shield, (n)
ship, vessel, (n)
shoe, (n)
shoot, (v)
shot, (n)
show, reveal, (v)
sir, (n)
sister, (n)
sit, (v)
skin, (n)
sky, (n)
sleep, (v)
slit, (v)
so, well, (excl)
soft, (v)
somebody, something, anybody, anything, (n)
somewhere, (n)
son, (n)
source, (n)
speak, say, (v)
stand, (v)
stop, cease, (v)
story, (n)
study, (v)
stuff, (v)
success, (n)
surprise, (v)
surrender, give up, (v)
sword, (n)
system, (n)
take, (v)
take away, (v)
tell the truth, (v)
tell, report, (v)
theory, (n)
there, over there, thereabouts, (n)
they, them, (pro)
they, them, (pro)
thing, (n)
think, (v)
throw away, (v)
today, (n)
tomorrow, (n)
translate, (v)
tree, (n)
tribble, (n)
trouble, (n)
trust, have faith in, (v)
turn, (v)
understand, (v)
use, (v)
verb, (n)
verify, (v)
victory, triumph, (n)
violate, (v)
violation, (n)
visit, (v)
vocabulary, (n)
voice, (n)
vow, swear, (v)
Vulcan, (n)
wait (for), (v)
wake up, cease sleeping, (v)
walk, (v)
want, (v)
war, (n)
warrior, (n)
watch, (v)
water, (n)
we, us, (pro)
weapon, (n)
wear (clothes), (v)
week, (n)
well done, very good, (excl)
wife, (n)
wind, breeze, (n)
wing, (n)
wonder, (v)
word, (n)
work, function, succeed, (v)
work, toil, (v)
wound, (v)
write, (v)
year, (n)
yes, true, (excl)
yes, true, (excl)
yesterday, (n)
you, (pro)
you (plural), (pro)

Copyright (c) 2002, d’Armond Speers
All Rights Reserved
Last modified: Sunday, February 10, 2002

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