tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Tue Jan 22 21:02:00 2002

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Re: 'e' with a to be verb

From: "qurgh lungqIj" <>
> >> Can you use to be verbs on 'e'?
> Hmm.... if I say 'e' vISov, 'e' is acting as the object, qar'a'?
> If I do DIS QaQ vISov, DIS QaQ is the object and QaQ is acting as an
> adjective.
> So why does 'e' become a subject when I use a verb as an adjective on
> it?

I had a feeling this is where you were going with this.  The only
by-the-book reason why this doesn't work in Klingon is that TKD 4.4
(adjectives) states that such a verb "can be used immediately following a
noun to modify that noun."  /'e'/ isn't a noun, it's a pronoun.  TKD 5.1
says that "pronouns may be used as nouns, but only for emphasis or added
clarity."  /'e'/ is never used for emphasis or added clarity, so it can't
take an adjective.

That's pretty flimsy reasoning of course.  What you're having a problem with
is the translation.

"It is good that I didn't die in battle."  This is what you're trying to
say.  Let me reword it in a couple of funny way in English to make the
sentence structure clearer.

"(I didn't die in battle) is good."

"I didn't die in battle.  That is good."

In that last sentence, "that" refers to the previous sentence "I didn't die
in battle."  "That" is also the subject of "is (good)."  If you tried to
make a Klingon sentence follow this structure, you'd be forced to put the
referencing "that" ('e') as the subject of /QaQ/, and /'e'/ can never be the

To say this in Klingon, you're going to have to find something other than
"that" for the subject of "be good."  Try this:

may'Daq jIHeghbe'mo' QaQ ghu'.

Or something a little more unusual:

jIHvaD QaQbe' may' Hegh.

I'm certain you can't modify /'e'/ with an adjectivally acting verb.

> >Also, the place at which you are arriving is the direct object of paw.
> >USA vIpaw - I arrive at the USA
> >DujDaq jIpaw - I arrived on a ship
> >DujDaq USA vIpaw - I arrived at the USA on a ship.
> Hmmm... so I said, "I arrived on the USA" (which is prolly right, since
> I was in a plane and it landed on US soil ;), but I know what you mean.
> So the question then is, if "at" is in paw, and "on" is in -Daq... where
> is "in" and how do you decide that it's in paw and not in -Daq? ;)

We received this information straight from Marc Okrand in HolQeD Vol. 7, No.
4, p. 9.  The object of /paw/ is the location arrived at, and this object
may even have the /-Daq/ suffix on it.  You would have no way to know this
is allowed without having access to (or being told about) this interview.

Stardate 2061.8

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