tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Tue Nov 03 12:19:19 2009
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Sentences as objects
Tracy Canfield (firstname.lastname@example.org)
- From: Tracy Canfield <email@example.com>
- Subject: Sentences as objects
- Date: Tue, 3 Nov 2009 15:14:52 -0500
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I have some questions about verbs in the TKD glossary that could potentiall
take sentences as objects. TKD only gives a few examples of these
constructions, mostly in section 6.2.5. ter'eS has additional information
at http://teresh.tdonnelly.org/kliadd6.html . I'm finding that I have some
questions that go beyond both sources.
I've grouped potentially similar verbs together to make this more readable -
I realize of course that they're not guaranteed to behave the same way.
1. Verbs of speech
This seems straightforward enough - only two verbs, jatlh and ja', can be
used with reported speech. So, just to confirm, none of the following can
be used with reported speech in the same sentences:
I'm guessing that you can use these in two sentences: jagh jeylu'.
vIQIjpu'. "The enemy was defeated. I explained it." for an equivalent to
"I explained that the enemy was defeated."
2. Verbs of observation
TKD gives a few example sentences for these:
yaS qIppu' 'e' vIlegh
discover, find, observe, notice tu'
Qu'vaD lI' net tu'bej
I find it interesting that the 'e' and net constructions can be used both
with sensory verbs and with more abstract verbs.
Here are some other verbs I might expect to take sentence objects using 'e'
Do we have any examples of these with sentence objects?
3. Verbs of mental processes
TKD gives us two examples with Sov, which takes a sentence object with 'e'
qamapu' DIHoH 'e' luSov
qamapu' DIHoH net Sov
The following verbs have related meanings - they all deal with mental
processes. Do we have any information about which ones do or don't work the
judge, estimate noH
4. Verbs of wanting
TKD shows that neH takes a sentence object without using a complementizer
such as 'e' or net:
Do these verbs work the same way?
5. Other verbs which take sentence objects in human languages
Finally, the TKD glossary includes several verbs which would take sentence
objects* in human languages, but which aren't particularly similar to the
verbs of perceiving, knowing, or desiring for which we see sample
sentences. Are any of these verbs known to take sentence objects?
allow, permit chaw'
attempt, try nID
decide wuq demand, require poQ
help, aid QaH
intend, mean to Hech
order, command ra'
prevent, block, prohibit bot
recommend, suggest chup
show, reveal 'ang
vow, swear 'Ip
* In many cases, including English, these "sentence objects" take forms that
wouldn't be allowed in a standalone sentence - we say "He goes" but "I want
him to go". Since none of these forms have Klingon equivalents that I know
if, I'm trying to avoid getting sidetracked into non-Klingon grammar.