tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Tue Jul 16 07:34:03 2002

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RE: KLBC: adverbs

SIv Quvar

>what's the difference adverbial/adverb?
>chay' pIm mu'meyvam?

lab Voragh:

>My (admittedly simplistic) understanding is that an adverbial is something 
>that is "adverb-like".

I don't know how helpful the "adverbial/adverb" distinction is when applied 
to Klingon. When discussing the grammar of English the terms "adverb", 
"noun", "preposition" etc. are normally used to indicate a type of word, 
i.e. a word's lexical category (a.k.a. a part of speech), while the terms 
"subject", "object", "adverbial", etc.  refer to the functions a word or 
phrase can perform in a sentence. (English) grammarians subdivide adverbials 
in many ways, e.g. "adverbials of time", "adverbials of place", "adverbials 
of manner" etc.

tlhIngan Hol pab Dellu'meH chaq permey "adverbial", "adverb" je poQ pab 
po'wI', chaq poQbe'. tlhIngan Hol pab po'wI' jIHbe'mo' jIjanglaHbe'.

DIvI' Hol pab Dellu'meH rut permey "adverbial", "adverb" lulo' DIvI' Hol pab 
po'wI'pu', Holtejpu' je.

mu' Segh 'oS mu' "adverb". DIvI' Hol mu' Segh ngu'meH permey law' lo'laH 
      nouns: spy, morality, water
      pronouns: it, you
      verbs: betray
      adjectives: slow, lovely, good, honorable, fast, womanly
      adverbs: slowly, fast, well, honorably
      interjections: oops, wow
      articles: the, a
      conjunctions: and, but, although
      prepositions: at, with, about
      latlh je

reH mobnIs 'op DIvI' Hol mu'mey.  mu'mey ghommey ("phrases") chenmoH 'op 
mu'mey. yIqel:
[Some words always appear on their own. Some can form phrases, e.g.]
      noun phrases: the spy,
                    the Romulan spy,
                    the spy who completed his mission
      preposition phrases: on Kronos,
      adverb phrases:  very quickly,
                       quickly enough,
                       not quite as quickly as I thought

mu'tlheghDaq Qu'mey Sar ta'laH mu'mey ghommey Sar.
[In a sentence various phrases can perform various functions.]
"adverbial"mey DalaH 'op mu'mey 'op mu'mey ghommey je:
[The function of an adverbial can be performed by:]

- adverbs:         He walked QUICKLY.
- adverb phrases:  He walked AS QUICKLY AS HE COULD.
- noun phrases:    He lives NEXT DOOR.
                   He died LAST WEEK.
- prepositional phrases: He fights WITH GREAT SKILL.
- clauses:         He was working ALTHOUGH HE WAS TIRED.
                   He attacked the enemy AS SOON AS HE SAW HIM.
                   AS FAR AS I KNOW, Kronos is inhabited by Klingons.
- latlh je

naDev ramlaw' De'vam. pImbej tlhIngan Hol, DIvI' Hol je. Hoch Hol Dellu'meH 
permey pIm lo'nIS DelwI'.


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