tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Mon Jul 08 18:04:43 2002

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RE: RE: word-question

Stephan Schneider:
> >you can say: "you honorably walk into the zone", why you can't say: "you 
> dangerously
> >walk into the zone". is there a way to make "danger" an adverb?
> >
> >i find it strange that okrand invented so many tools to cast from noun to
> >verb, from verb to noun an so on, but there is nothing to cast from noun to
> >adverb. hm...

Andrew Strader:
>That's a fair complaint. But there are other tools that avail us, and after a
>while, you won't miss "dangerously" and its kin.

Andrew's right.  Instead of fixating on elements Klingon doesn't have - 
such as freely-formed adverbs - focus on trying to re-state the thought 
using the tools we do have, specifically verbs and the correct use of suffixes.

>mIchDaq DayItchugh QobtaHvIS ghu'...

Another verb is {'el} "enter, go in" and it's used in TKD:

   mIch 'elpu' jay'
   They've entered the @#$% sector!

We also have an example using {ghu'} "situation" in "Power Klingon", adding 
the sense of danger to the action of the main verb:

   DopDaq qul yIchenmoH QobDI' ghu'
   Set fire on the side when there is danger ("when the situation is 

So, putting these together:

   mIch Da'el QobDI' ghu'
   You enter the zone when the situation is dangerous.

Here are a few more versions to consider while I have a few minutes to 
spare ...

You can transform one of the clauses into a relative {-bogh} clause:

   Qobbogh mIch Da'el.
   You enter the zone which is dangerous.

or just use it as a quality:

   mIch Qob Da'el.
   You enter the dangerous zone.

Another way is using a {-meH} purpose clause:

   mIch Da'elmeH Qob ghu'
   Entering the zone is dangerous (for you).
   ("In order for you to enter the zone, the situation is dangerous.")

Yet another way is to simply juxtapose the two verbs in one sentence, 
separated by a semicolon:

   mIch Da'el; Qob ghu'.
   You enter the zone; the situation is dangerous.

or even simpler:

   mIch Da'el; Qob.
   You enter the zone; it is dangerous.

BTW, Okrand does this juxtaposition trick a lot, most commonly when 
rendering similes - e.g. {bIr; bortaS rur} "cold as revenge" (lit. "it is 
cold; it resembles revenge"), {puj; bIQ rur} "weak as water" (lit. "it is 
weak; it resembles water"), etc.

One of the most useful tools is {-mo'}:

   Qobqu'mo' QIt mIch vI'el.
   Because it was so dangerous, I entered the zone slowly.

> >you can say: "you honorably walk into the zone", why you can't say: "you 
> dangerously
> >walk into the zone". is there a way to make "danger" an adverb?

Translating into another language is more than mechanically translating 
each element from the original:  i.e. adverb for adverb, noun for noun, 
verb for verb, etc.  For example, although it may be good German, no 
English speaker I know of would say "you dangerously walk into the 
zone".  Yes, it's grammatically correct (and understandable), but it's not 
how we use that particular adverb.  It's not idiomatic.

We just have to accept the fact that Klingons get by without a lot of 
adverbials.  Instead, they carefully vary the use of the verb suffixes, 
many of which actually do add adverbial connotations to the basic meaning 
of the verb.  Take another look at them in TKD and examine Okrand's use of 
suffixes in his sample sentences.  Look particularly at the appended "List 
of Useful Expressions".  You'll be surprised at what you can do with them.

It does take practice, and it's often exasperating, but that's where the 
fun is for many of us on this list:  What can you do with the tools we 
have?  How can we combine grammar, style and idiom?

Ca'Non Master of the Klingons

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