tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Fri Feb 19 09:10:17 1999

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Re: Counting targets

>	wej ray'
>	3 targets
: I don't really know whether this is correct or not.  Is {ray'} just an
: "irregular" plural for {DoS}, or does it mean something distinct from
: simply "targets" this way?  Counting inherent plurals is an area of the
: language that to the best of my knowledge hasn't been explored well.

When there are different words for the singular and plural, we know that
NUMBER + SINGULAR NOUN + (optional) PLURAL SUFFIX focuses attention on the
items as individuals.  See the discussion in KGT (p.49f) on "soldier(s)":

	The usual plural form of {mang} is a different word altogether: 
	{negh} (warriors, soldiers). The word {mangpu'} is seldom used 
	used, but it is not ungrammatical. It carries with it the notion 
	that there are individuals (more than one {mang}) making up the 
	group; {negh} focuses on the group as a unit.

And so we can say {cha' DoSmey DIqIp} "We hit two [different] targets"
(KGT), which is an idiom for disagreeing or, perhaps, missing the point

Okrand did characterize *{ngopmey} *"plateses" as a form of babytalk, a
common childish error (KGT p.33); a single "plate" is {jengva'}.  As far as
I know, Okrand has never considered the possibility of using NUMBER +
PLURAL NOUN.  {wej ray'} would either be completely wrong (e.g. a typical
foreigner's mistake) or, just possibly, mean something like "three
groups/concentrations of targets", i.e. three separate locations each
containing multiple targets.

For those interested, here are the attestations of {DoS} and {ray'} in canon:

DoS  "target" (sg.)

	targets scattered all about. TKD

	DoS yIbuS 
	Concentrate on the target! TKD

	matHa', DoS jonta' neH.
	Gunner: target engine only. ST3

	baHwI', DoS yIbuS! QuQ neH. yaj'a'? 
	Gunner: Target engine only - Understood? ST3

	DoS cha'!
	Display target! STMP

	tlha'a HoD, DoS wIpuSta'. 
	Captain Klaa, we have a target in sight. ST5

	muSuvqu' DoS vIpoQ.   (??)
	I need a target that fights back. ST5
	[Should this be {muSuvbogh DoS vIpoQ}?]

	'entepray' 'oH DoS'e'. 
	Enterprise targeted! ST5

	wa' DoS neH yIbuS 
	Focus on but one target. TKW

	yIQeqQo' neH. DoS yIqIp 
	Don't just aim; hit the target! TKW

	wa' DoS wIqIp 
	We hit one target (idiom: We agree.) KGT

	DoS wIqIp 
	We hit a target (idiom: We agree.) 

	cha' DoSmey DIqIp 
	We hit two targets (idiom: We disagree.) KGT

	DoSmey DIqIp 
	We hit targets 
	(idiom: We disagree; lit. "We hit scattered targets.") KGT

ray'  "targets" (pl.)

	ray' wIqIp 
	We hit targets. KGT 
	motlh ray' luSamlaHmeH De' Qatlh cha' tlhIngan Duj jIH'a' 
	The main viewer on a Klingon ship is usually overlaid
	 with a complex target acquisition grid. SP3

	SuvwI' vI' Dub naQvam 'ej ray' HopDaq bachlu'meH chuqna'
	 ghurmoH naQvam 
	This serves to steady the aim of a warrior and increase
	 the effective range for distance targeting. S14 

Ca'Non Master of the Klingons

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