tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Thu Dec 02 19:37:36 1999

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Re: nuqneH

----- Original Message -----
From: Regina Reusser <>
To: <>
Sent: Friday, November 26, 1999 4:41 PM
Subject: Re: nuqneH

> jabbI'IDlIjvaD qatlho'. Hoch vIyajpu', 'ej choyajpu' vItIv. DaH
> majachuqlaH!
> HIja' reH jIQaghDI' cholughmoHlaH.

reH qalughmoHbe', 'a potlhchugh Qagh, qaja'.

> jabbI'IDlIjDaq "DachenmoHDI" Dalo'pu'. 'a ghorgh "chenmoHDI" net lo' 'ej
> ghorgh "chenmoHpu'" net lo'?

You've said "But one uses when <chenmoHDI'>? and one uses when

You don't need the {net} here . . . you're not trying to do Sentence As
Object.  A simple Type 5 verb suffix will do:

'a ghorgh <chenmoHDI'> lo'lu' 'ej ghorgh <chenmoHpu'> lo'lu'?
But when does one use <chenmoHDI'> and when does one use <chenmoHpu'>?

when he causes it to take form,
when he makes it

(or other appropriate pronouns, she, him, etc.)

he has caused it to take form,
he has made it

{-DI'} is for a subordinate clause.  That means it's only part of the
bigger, main sentence.  {-pu'} is an aspect suffix, and can be on either a
subordinate clause or a main clause.

tIjwI'ghom chenmoHDI' HoD, vIra'.
When the captain forms the boarding party, I will command it.

tIjwI'ghom chenmoHpu' HoD.
The captain has formed a boarding party.

> wa'leS jupwIj vISuch. puqpu' maHtaHvISpu' maghompu', 'ej DaH nIteb
> jIyIntaHvIS, reH SoSDajDaq yIntaH ghaH.

SoSDaj juH Dab.  jIyaj.

One of the things English speakers learning Klingon often do is use the
aspect suffixes {-pu'} or {-ta'} wherever they see past tense in English.
Remember, aspect tells whether an action was completed or continuous, not
whether it happened in the past, present, or future.  Thus, you might say

puqpu' maHtaHvIS maqIH.
We met while we were children.  (Notice the use of {qIH} "meet for the first
time" instead of {ghom} "encounter.")

However, this isn't the best way to say this in Klingon.  Try the verb
{Qup}, like so:

maQuptaHvIS maqIH.
We met while we were young.
(A smoother translation: "We met when we were young.")

See how I didn't use {maqIHpu'}, which means "We had met/we have met/we will
have met"?  I established the time context with {maQuptaHvIS}; this tells
you when the main sentence occurs.  Klingon doesn't use grammar to indicate
this tense.

If I had said {maQuptaHvIS maqIHpu'}, it would have meant "When we were
young, we had met."  It would mean that at the time that we were young, we
had completed meeting for the first time.  While perhaps technically true,
that's not what you mean to express.  You're talking about an event that
occurs, not an event that was completed, or an event that is ongoing.  So no
Type 7 verb suffix is used.


> vaj, "dog"vaD tlhIngan mu' vISovbe'. tera'ngan Ha'DIbaH 'oH "dog"
> ("english" mu' vIlo'pu'.)

bIqar: tera' Ha'DIbaH 'oH <dog>'e'.  vaj tlhIngan mu' tu'lu'be'.  DIvI' Hol
mu' yIlo'.

Stardate 99920.6

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