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[Tlhingan-hol] Story: ghuv = The Recruit

Robyn Stewart (robyn@flyingstart.ca) [KLI Member] [Hol po'wI']



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<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">I write stories for the same reason this list encourages everyone to write</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">in Klingon: to practise</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> (yes, that&#8217;s how</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">the verb is</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> spelled in Canadian)</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">, and to get feedback for improvement. It&#8217;s easy to think you have something right</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> when it&#8217;s not quite</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">or to drift away from proper usage if you don&#8217;t</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">reground yourself in canon all the time.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> I also write stories because I like writing stories, so feel free to provide feedback on grammar, usage, Star</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">T</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">rek canon</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">writing</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> critique</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">or</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> the way I explain things</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Here&#8217;s the first paragraph.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Six sentences.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">ghuv</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> = The Recruit</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">nenchoHDI' torgh, tlhIngan mangghom muv.&nbsp; woSDajDaq wej chen rol 'ach QI' wIvta' rIntaH. qorDu'DajvaD wIvDaj ja'be'. Hu' neH 'ej Du'vo' vengDaq yIt, waqmeyDaj Qop tuQtaHvIS. Sargh lIghchugh vaj Sargh tatlhlu'meH tlhejnIS vay'. nIteb ghoS 'e' maS torgh, vaqlaHpa' vay'.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">If you</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;re experienced and</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> can read that, yo</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">u don&#8217;t need the rest of this message</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">If you&#8217;re learning and think you can read it, then do so and then you can check your understanding below.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">If you&#8217;re a rank beginner and</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">you&#8217;d like to be able to read it, let me help you.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> You can look up the individual words, and I&#8217;ll help you parse and interpret the ones with affixes.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> I use a shorthand V4 and N2 to</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">describe type-4 verb suffixes and type-2 noun suffixes.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">If you&#8217;re only here for the petty arguments then hang tight, one should break out any time now.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Sentence by sentence:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">nenchoHDI' torgh, tlhIngan mangghom muv.&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">nen = be mature, be grown up</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-choH = V</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">3</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">indicating a change of state</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-DI&#8217; = V9 when, as soon as</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">torgh = personal name, canonically given to a male</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tlhIngan mangghom = army of the Klingon(s) OR Klingon(s) army (a noun-noun construction, see TKD 3.4)</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">There is</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">a zero</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> prefix on the verb</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">wIv</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> so the subject is he/she/it</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">, and you can</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">assume the subject is the same as</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">in the previous phrase until a new subject is specified or the verb prefix changes.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">And of course you know that the subject of the verb comes after the verb, and the object before it, so:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">When</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Torg</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> came of age, he joined the Klingon</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">army</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Next:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">woSDajDaq</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">wej chen rol 'ach QI' wIvta' rIntaH.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">woS</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> = chin</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-Daj = N4 his/her/its</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-Daq = N5 locative</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">From the dictionary</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">wej could mean &#8220;three&#8221; or &#8220;not yet</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221; If it meant three it</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">might </FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">precede</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">a noun</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;wej rolDu</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;&gt; = three beards &#8211; but it doesn&#8217;t</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">follow a noun &lt;rol wej&gt; = beard number three &#8211; but it doesn&#8217;t</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">act alone as a</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">pseudo-</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">noun</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">as in the canon</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;wa</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217; yIHoH&gt; = kill one</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">But it can&#8217;t be playing</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">role (c)</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> because chen is not a transitive verb, so it would have no place in the sentence that way.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> So it must mean</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">not yet.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221;&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">While TKD says that adverbs &#8220;usually come at the beginning of a sentence&#8221; we see from Skybox SP1</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tlhIngan Dujmey law'qu' SommeyDaq batlh cha'lu'</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&gt; that it can follow a locative phrase, as it does here.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">A</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">n experienced</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">speaker doesn&#8217;t have to do this analysis to read the sentence. Your brain just rejects the other possibilities before you think about</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">them</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">, but a beginner might have to stop and figure it out.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">wIv = choose, select</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-ta&#8217; = perfective suffix, indicating that it</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;s the completion of the action, not the action itself that is important here, and that the action has been undertaken deliberately</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">rIntaH = &#8220;it continues to be finished&#8221; an idiom emphasizing the undoability of the preceding.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">He hasn&#8217;t yet grown a beard, but he has chosen the military and that&#8217;s final.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Tense isn&#8217;t indicated in Klingon, so this could just as well be: &#8220;A beard</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">di</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">d</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">n&#8217;t form</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">ed</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> on his face yet, but he had chosen the military and that was that.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221; I&#8217;m afraid I&#8217;ll waffle between present and past as I translate.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>
<UL DIR=LTR><UL DIR=LTR>
<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>
</UL></UL>
<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Next:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">qorDu'DajvaD wIvDaj ja'be'.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">qorDu&#8217; = family (don&#8217;t be fooled by what looks like the plural suffix &#8211;Du&#8217;)</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-Daj =</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">N4</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">his/her/its </FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-vaD = the action of the sentence is directed towards this noun</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">wIv = choice &#8211; you know it&#8217;s the noun choice and not the verb choose here, because it has a</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">N4 on it.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">ja&#8217; = tell, report</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-be&#8217; = negation suffix</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;He did not tell his choice to his family.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> or &#8220;He didn&#8217;t tell his family his decision.&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Next:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Hu' neH 'ej Du'vo' vengDaq yIt, waqmeyDaj Qop tuQtaHvIS.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Hu&#8217; = get up + zero prefix = he gets up</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> OR the noun &#8220;zoo&#8221;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">neH could mean only, merely, or want</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">If Hu&#8217; is a noun then the sentence begins &#8220;he wants a zoo&#8221; or</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;only a zoo&#8221;. It can&#8217;t be the latter, because the next thing in the sentence is the conjunction &#8216;ej, which joins</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">sentences or</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">verbal clauses, and &#8220;only a zoo&#8221; has no verb</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">. You probably don&#8217;t have to read more of the sentence to guess whether a story about someone joining the army will feature him getting up, or him wanting a zoo, but</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">if you read on, with luck you won&#8217;t need to guess.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Du&#8217; = farm</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-vo&#8217; = movement away from</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">veng=city</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-Daq = location or movement towards</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">yIt = walk</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">This</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">means</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;he walks from the farm to the city&#8221;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> as in the canon &lt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tIngvo' 'evDaq chanDaq</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&gt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&quot;from area-southwestward to<BR>
area-northwestward to area eastward&quot;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">. If for some reason the farm was in the city, I think I could say</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">vengDaq Du</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;vo&#8217; yIt&gt; but that would be a weird place for a farm. Perhaps &lt;vengDaq vav juHvo&#8217; yIt&gt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> &#8220;he walks from his father&#8217;s house in the city. Some people MIGHT interpret that as &#8220;he walks to the city from his father&#8217;s house&#8221; so I probably would say instead</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;veng ghoSmeH vav juHvo&#8217; yIt&gt; &#8220;He walks from his father&#8217;s house in order to go to the city.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">There&#8217;s another clause in this sentence:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">waqmeyDaj Qop tuQtaHvIS</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">waq = shoe</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-mey = N2 plural</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-Daj = N4 his/her/its &#8211; okay you should know this one by now, remember it.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Qop = be worn out</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">The be-verb Qop goes after the noun</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">, so it describes the shoes but is not the predicate of the phrase. </FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tuQ = wear</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">taH =</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">V</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">7</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8211;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> continuous</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">aspect, the</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">point of the</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">action</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">of the verb</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">is its ongoing nature, not its inception or completion</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-vIS = V9</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> &#8211; while &#8211; this verb is happening while the main action of the sentence happens. Always requires &#8211;taH.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca">&nbsp;</SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;While he was wearing his worn out shoes.&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">The whole sentence then, &#8220;He simply got up and walked from the farm to the city, wearing his worn out shoes.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Sometimes neH &#8220;merely&#8221; in this position is confused for &#8220;want&#8221; but I think given the choice between</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;he wants to get up&#8221; and &#8220;he merely gets up&#8221;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">is not hard. Let me know if it is.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">I</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">also</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">hope the reader understands that the worn out shoes are the only ones he has, not that he deliberately chose his worn out ones</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">of his shiny new ones,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">for some reason, but neither the Klingon nor the English makes that explicit</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Next:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Sargh lIghchugh vaj Sargh tatlhlu'meH tlhejnIS vay'.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Sargh = a Klingon riding animal,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">often</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> translated &#8220;horse&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">lIgh = ride (v)</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-chugh</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">=</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">V9 denoting</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;if&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">vaj = thus, then, often used between an if-clause and then thing that will happen if it</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;s true.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tatlh = return (something to its place)</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-lu&#8217; = V5 denotes indefinite subject</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-meH = V9 the</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> action of</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">the</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">following verb is</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">in order to achieve the action</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> of this verb.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">tlhej = accompany</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-nIS = V2 need &#8211; the subject needs to do the action of this verb.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">vay&#8217; = someone, something, anyone, anything</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;If he rides a horse then someone needs to accompany him in order that the horse be returned.&#8221;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Without the</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8211;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">lu</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217; it would be &#8220;...in order for him to return the horse,&#8221; which could also work.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">In English this sentence would be rendered, &#8220;If he were to ride a horse, someone would</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">need</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> to accompany him in order for the horse to be returned,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8221; and I am so grateful that Klingon doesn&#8217;t have that tense/mood/whatever it is, because I</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8217;ve never learned a foreign language well enough to use such constructions, and I don&#8217;t know the rules in English they just come out right when I talk and write, because that&#8217;s how native language wor</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">ks.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca">&nbsp;<FONT FACE="Calibri"> I think it&#8217;s fair to translate it in proper English or in the slightly stilted way I did first. When I&#8217;m using that simple</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca">&nbsp;<FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&lt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-chugh, vaj&gt;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> construction in Klingon I always check to see that it makes sense without the fancy-dancy extra tenses English has, otherwise I can&#8217;t be sure it would make sense in Klingon.&nbsp; But I think this one does.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Final sentence:</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">. nIteb ghoS 'e' maS torgh, vaqlaHpa' vay'.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">nIteb</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">=</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> acting alone</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">ghoS</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">=</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"></FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">go, come,</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">proceed along a course</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8216;e&#8217; = the preceding sentence is now the object of the next sentence</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">maS = prefer (immediately reject &#8220;moon&#8221; as a translation, because it leaves the clause</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">&#8220;torg of the moon&#8221; with no verb).</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">vaq = mock</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-laH = V5 be able to </FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-pa&#8217; = V9 before</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">torgh prefers</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">to</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">go</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">on his own</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">, before anyone can mock him.</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">Phew, too long? Maybe next time I&#8217;ll limit myself to five clauses</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri"> total</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">.</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> </SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"><FONT FACE="Calibri">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"> <FONT FACE="Calibri">Qov</FONT></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

<P DIR=LTR><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN><SPAN LANG="en-ca"></SPAN></P>

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