tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Sun Dec 16 04:14:26 2007

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Re: jIHtaHbogh naDev vISovbe'

QeS 'utlh (

ghItlhpu' qa'vaj, ja':
>(As we all know), the location of {pa'Daq} in the sentence is 
>syntactically consistent with two possibile roles.  One is that it
>is a locative in the header slot, the other is that it is the
>object of the copula (using the terms that you have offered).

jIjangpu', jIja': 
>Or (and this is where it can mess with your head a little) it might
>be both.

jatlh SuStel, ja':
>Welllll... not exactly. I believe a noun is either a header or it is an

In reading how you explain this, I realise that in discussing this I've
been applying "header" to anything that has a type 5 suffix on it.
HIvqa' veqlargh, and consider the same proverb to be the response
to most of the rest of your explanation.

>Either way there is no restriction about using any type 5
>suffixes on it

To be specific, no *explicit* restriction. We know absolutely nothing about how {-vaD} or {-vo'} might appear on a direct object, although
maybe a {-vo'}-marked noun might be able to appear as a direct
object for a verb like {mej} "leave", in a construct comparable to the
direct objects with {-Daq}: {tengchaHvo' wImej} "we left the
space station", perhaps.

>and, given the proper sentence, there may be no difference in

Such as the {-Daq}-marked direct objects, or perhaps {qarDaSngan'e' leghpu' tlhIngan}, for instance.

>Having a locative suffix does not disqualify a noun from being an
>object, and in my analysis it does not disqualify a noun from being
>a "copulative." (I really want to find a better name for that!)

"Existential"? (Although "beable" really does wrap it up quite well!)

QeS 'utlh
tlhIngan Hol yejHaD pab po'wI'
(Grammarian of the Klingon Language Institute)

not nItoj Hemey ngo' juppu' ngo' je
(Old roads and old friends will never deceive you)
- Ubykh Hol vIttlhegh

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