tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Wed Nov 27 01:58:16 2002

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Re: KLBC - V5 -lu'

Am 26.11.2002 18:20:12, schrieb "Gina Robertson" <>:
>Can you give me some more information on the -lu' suffix?  
>I'm having a hard time translating with -lu'.  May just be I 
>dont understand it well enough.  Thanks in advance.

I'll tree to hold it short.
suffix {-lu'} reverses the meaning of the prefix, and the english translation can be passive voice.
   {vIleghlu'} "I am seen"
i.e. "someone sees me"
note: word order of object and subject remain the same:
  targh legh - he sees the targ
  targh leghlu' - the targ is being seen, someone sees the targ.

TKD says that we can only use prefixes {vI-, Da-, wI-, bo-}, whose object are usually third-person singular.
Of course, since the {-lu'} flips the meaning, and the result is always in the form "someone does..."
trying to make clear:

{vI-} "I-it"  ==> "someone-me"
{Da-} "you-it"  ==> "someone-you"
{wI-} "we-it"  ==> "someone-us"
{bo-} "you(pl)-it"  ==> "someone-you (pl)"

Here are some famous examples, I hope they can enlighten you a bit:
   When treatened, fight.
   DabuQlu'DI' yISuv
DabuQ - you threaten it
DabuQlu' - someone threatens you, you are threatened
   May you die before you are captured.
   Dajonlu'pa' bIHeghjaj
Dajon - you capture him
Dajonlu' - someone captures you, you are captured
These were examples to show the "passive" use, where the subject is unknown.
The suffix is also used to say a general statement, like "one needs to...":
   There is no honor in attacking the weak
   pujwI' HIvlu'chugh quvbe'lu'
HIv - he atttacks someone
HIvlu' - someone atttacks him, he is attacked
quvbe' - he is not honored
quvbe'lu' - someone is not being honored
   One need not enjoy virtue. 
   ghob tIvnISbe'lu'
tIvnISbe' - he does not need
tIvnISbe'lu' - one does not need
   It is a good day to die.
   Heghlu'meH QaQ jajvam
HeghmeH - for him to die
Heghlu'meH - for someone to die
And the most famous use of the suffix: tu'lu' = "there is"
   There is always a chance.
   reH 'eb tu'lu'
tu' - he discovers him/her/it
tu'lu' - it is discovered, someone discovers him/her/it
I am not what exactly is unclear to you, I hope these examples and explanations work for you

Some of them following sentences are maybe too hard, but just try. If you think you really cannot do it, just ask again :-)
Try some of these:

   I am chased.
   You are being watched.
   It needs to be earned.
   You will be remembered with honor.
   The computer has been deactivated.
   Love is always smelled.
   This sword breaks when used (if someone uses it)
   There is a bug in my shoe.

can you translate these?
(it's from TKW, so don't cheat ;-)
   bortaS bIr jablu'DI' reH QaQqu' nay'
   'oy'be'lu'chugh Qapbe'lu'
Beginners' Grammarian
  ghojwI'pu'wI' vISaH

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