tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Mon Nov 18 13:46:07 2002

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Re: Last sentence from Qov's sentences

> >> I can't find anything in TKD that deals with intensity, or am i just
> >> thinking along the wrong lines here?

> > There's also the verb suffix {-qu'} to show emphasis (p48-49), which can
> > add that extra oomph to your words.

>So how do you make that describe hard work then?

With {-qu'}:

   jIvum     "I work"
   jIvumqu'  "I work hard"

Although many beginners get into the habit of translating it as "very", the 
emphatic suffix {-qu'} has a variety of uses.  In TKD (p.48ff.) we read that

   This suffix emphasizes or affirms whatever immediately precedes it.
      yIHaDqu'       study him/her well
      nuQaw'qu'be'  they have not finished us off.
   The roving nature of -qu' can be seen in the following set:
     pIHoHvIpbe'qu'  we are not afraid to kill you
     pIHoHvIpqu'be'  we are not afraid to kill you
     pIHoHqu'vIpbe'  we are not afraid to kill you.
   The first word might be used after an enemy challenged the bravery of
   the speaker. The second might be followed by an explanation such as,
   "We are not willing to kill you because we require your services." The
   third word would be used to emphasize killing, as opposed to some other
   form of punishment... The rover {-qu'} "emphatic" may follow verbs
   functioning adjectivally. In this usage, it is usually translated "very."
     Dujmey tInqu'  very big ships
     wanI' ramqu'   a very unimportant event.

Exactly how {-qu'} emphasizes the action will vary somewhat depending on 
the particular verb.  For example:

   nom yIghoSqu'
   Maximum speed. ST5

   It's certain death. (MO's ST5 notes)

   qIrq wItlha'taHqu'
   Where Kirk goes, we follow. (MO's ST5 notes)

   That's an order. (MO's ST5 notes)

   naDev Dochvetlh qemqu'!
   I really mean it this time! Bring that here! PK (clipped)

   Qapqu' wovmoHbogh janHommey
   It even has working lights! (Hallmark)

   tIqIpqu' 'ej nom tIqIp
   Hit them hard and hit them fast. TKW

   bIQapqu'meH tar DaSop 'e' DatIvnIS
   To really succeed, you must enjoy eating poison. TKW

   batlh maHeghbej 'ej yo' qIjDaq vavpu'ma' DImuv.
    pa' reH maSuvtaHqu'
   Then we die with honor and join our fathers in the Black Fleet
    where we battle forever. (Anthem)

   really fail KGT

   I lose in a big way". KGT

   pInaDqu' tuqlIj wInaDqu' je
   Glory to you and your house.
   ("We praise you highly; we also praise your house highly") KGT

Note especially the TKW example with {tIqIpqu'} "hit them hard".

Voragh                            "All the meaning is in the context."
Ca'Non Master of the Klingons           (Ilya Kabakov, Russian artist)

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