tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Mon Feb 15 18:42:00 1999

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Re: bo'Dagh'a'

In a message dated 2/12/1999 12:08:05 AM US Mountain Standard Time, writes:

<< those words (Hu', ben, nem, leS) are all nouns, and in that case {'ar}
 follows the noun it modyfies, as in {nIn 'ar wIghaj}.
 {ben 'ar bIbogh} "How old are you?"
 {leS 'ar mamej}
 and so on. >>

Good argument!!!!

{-logh} is introduced on TKD p. 55 (section 5.2, "Numbers").  It is given as a
suffix to numbers; it is not a noun, it is not a verb, it is not anything
else!  Outside of its being a suffix for numbers, we have no idea what part of
speech it is.

Further, "these numbers function in the sentence as adverbials."  (viz.
section 5.4)

Section 5.4 lists the adverbials.  This list does not include {'ar} nor any
mention of numbers (that means {-logh} is not re-discussed).

OTOH, question words are not in section 5 at all.  They are in section 6.4.
"Syntax:  Questions." (TKD pp. 68-69)  Two question words are treated as
nouns:  {nuq} and {'Iv}.  One is treated as a locative:  {nuqDaq}.  Three
others occur at the beginning of the sentence:  {ghorgh}, {qatlh}, and

Here, I refer back to section 5.4, which states "These words usually come at
the beginning of a sentence and describe the manner of the activity."  Now,
back to section 6.4:  "There are... ...and those [questions] which require
explanations as answers."  I deduce that there is further evidence on p. 70,
"This is actually how," that the last three above-mentioned questions words
occupy the position of adverbs, including time stamps.  (Yes, I see Klingon
language time stamps as a type of adverbs.  That is, they occupy the beginning
of the sentence and DESCRIBE some attribute about the sentence in addition to
the basic statement.)

Okay, let's get to {'ar}.  It is a question word; it appears in section 6.4
"Questions."  Merely following the argument of its position relative to a
noun, it acts like an adjective (section 4.4).  No, it is not an adjective. It
really is a question word, just in an awkward position.  After all, there is
an adverb which occupies the same awkward position: {neH}.  I cannot conclude
that the answer to {'ar} is fulfulled by {neH} alone, nor even by adjectives
(descriptive verbs in Klingon) {law'} and {puS}.  To complete the answers to
{'ar}, we need to use numbers, which obviously do not occupy this position.
Rather they precede the noun.

Now, on to {'arlogh}.  What was Okrand thinking when he constructed this
question word?  If {-logh} can only be affixed to numbers, then {'ar} must
double as a number as well as a question word.  If {'ar} can only be a
question word, then you are quite right in arguing that it cannot be the first
syllable of a noun construction of any type, let alone a question.

But, wait!  Before anyone argues that an adverb cannot be combined with a noun
to make a time stamp, {DaHjaj} already exists in canon.

Wow.  This could get complicated.  What if I'm right and Maltz just has not
revealed these secrets to us yet?


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