tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Thu Oct 14 10:45:30 1993

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Grammer Rules



I put this set of rules together to help me find things quickly.  I hope it 
may help some of you.  If I have a mistake here please correct me.

Definitions:
N1  A general noun
A1 An adjectival verb
# A number
O# An ordinal number
R# Repetition number
C1 A conjunction
Ad1 An adverbial
S1 A complete sentence
No Noun which is the direct object of a verb
Ns Noun which is the subject of a verb
Ni Noun which is an indirect object of a verb
Nh Noun as the head of a clause
Te A time element
(T#) A type # suffix appropriate to the root
SC Subordinate clause
RC Relative clause
PC Purpose clause

Noun-Noun Construction
Section 3.4  page 30
N1 N2 = N2 of the N1 = N1's N2

Adjectives
Section 4.4 page 49
N1 A1 = Apply A1 to the noun N1

Numbers
Numbers are treated as nouns
# N1 = there are # occurrences of N1

Ordinal Numbers follow their noun
N1 O# = the #th occurrence of N

Repetition numbers function as adverbials

Conjunctions
Section 5..3 page 55
Joining nouns
N1 N2 C1 = N1 C1 N2
Verbs with je (and)
V1 je = also V1

Joining Sentences
S1 C1 S2

Adverbials
Section 5.4 page 55 and 177
Adverbials precede the Object-Verb-Subject construct
Te Ad1 No V1 Ns
Te No'e' Ad1 V1 Ns
Exceptions:
neH : V1 neH = merely V1
jay' : S1 jay' = S1 as an invective

Basic Sentence Structure
Section 6.1 page 62
N1(T5) No V1 Ns

Subordinate Clauses
Section 6.2.2 page 62
SC = V1(T9)
SC S1 or S1 SC

Relative Clauses
Section 6.2.3 page 63
who, which, when, that type clauses
RC=V1(bogh) Nhs  or  Nho V1(bogh)
RC is used as a noun.
'e' may be used as a suffix to mark the head noun if needed

Purpose Clauses
Section 6.2.4 page 64
PC=V1-meH
PC N1 = N1 for the purpose of V1-ing

Sentences as Objects
Section 6.2.5 page 65
'e' and net are third person singular pronouns which are always the object of V1
S1 'e' V1 = S1. Pronoun V1 that (S1)

S1 net V1 = S1. Someone V1 that (S1)

exceptions:
If V1 is neH (want)  or a verb of telling (jatlh [speak], ja' [tell], tlhob [ask], etc.) then neither 'e' or net are used, the two parts simple follow one another.

The verb "to be"
Section 6.3 page 68
Pronouns are used for the verb "to be" (Section 5.1)
Any pronoun may be used for the verb "to be" and can accept the verbal suffixes.  If a noun is the subject of the sentence then it must have the suffix 'e' (topic)

Questions
Section 6.4 page 68, 179
Yes/No questions use the question suffix 'a'

Other questions use one of the following:
chay' (how), ghorgh (when), nuq (what), nuqDaq (where), qatlh (why), 'ar (how many, how much), 'Iv (who)

who and what occupy the answer position
where, when, why, and how come at the front of the sentence
how many, how much follows the noun it modifies
qar'a' (be accurate) can be used to form an "is that right?" question by placing it either after the verb or at the end of the sentence.

Comparatives and Superlatives
Section 6.6 page 70
N1 V1 law' N2 V1 puS = N1 has more V1 than N2 does (i.e. N1 is V1-er than N2)
if N2 is Hoch (all) then this becomes a superlative.

Indirect Objects
Section 6.8 page 180
Ni = N1-vaD
The full form of a sentence would be:

Te Ad Ni No V1 Ns
              ____
             |INRI|
         ____|    |____
        |              |
        |____      ____|
             |    |           Matt Whiteacre
             |    |           MMW8970@ZEUS.TAMU.EDU
             |    |
             |    |
             |____|



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