tlhIngan-Hol Archive: Mon Sep 09 07:18:02 2013

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Re: [Tlhingan-hol] do {vIttlhegh} become {ngo'} or {qan}?

De'vID (

QeS 'utlh:
>> In the other direction, though, I had an Ubykh proverb in my signature for
>> a long time, of which the English translation was "Old roads and old friends
>> will never deceive you". The problem is that English "old friend" in this
>> circumstance doesn't really mean {jup qan}. Can one, therefore, talk about a
>> {jup ngo'} - an old friend, one that one has known for a long time - as
>> opposed to a {jup qan}, merely a friend who happens to be old?

Brent Kesler:
> jup nI'?

While I doubt that a {jup} him/herself can be {nI'}, a friendship
certainly can be, and it's an excellent suggestion for that purpose.

So Klingon allows us to distinguish between these three senses covered
by the English word "old":
{jup qan vIghaj} - "I have an old friend, I have a friend who is
advanced in years"
{DaHjaj juppu' chu' vIqIH, 'ach jup ngo' ghaH} - "I met new friends
today, but she is an old friend, she is a friend whom I already knew
before today (but not necessarily for very long)"
{qaStaHvIS poH nI' jupwI' ghaH} - "He is an old friend, he has been my
friend for a long time"


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