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KLINGON LANGUAGE INSTITUTE
A Pennsylvania Nonprofit Corporation
ARTICLE 1 - DEFINITIONS
SECTION 1.1 Definitions.
The following terms used in these Bylaws shall have the meanings set forth
- "Act" means the Pennsylvania Nonprofit Corporation Law of 1988, as
- "Advisory Board" means the Advisory Board of the Corporation.
- "Board" means the Board of Directors of the Corporation.
- "Commonwealth" means the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
- "Corporation" means Klingon Language Institute.
- "Director" means an individual serving on the Board.
SECTION 1.2 Statutory Definitions.
Other capitalized terms used in these Bylaws shall have the applicable
meanings set forth in Part II of Title 15 of the Pennsylvania Consolidated
ARTICLE 2 - PURPOSES
SECTION 2.1 Purposes.
The purposes of the Corporation are educational, literary, and scientific,
specifically: to promote the study and use of the Klingon language as a
means of further developing the sciences of linguistics, philology,
computer science, psychology, and other fields of academic study; to
provide educational instruction in the use of the Klingon language; to
engage in the study and support of Klingon linguistics and culture; to
provide a forum for discussion and the exchange of ideas regarding Klingon
linguistics and culture; to prepare, in accordance with generally accepted
educational methods, materials necessary or valuable in achieving the
educational purposes of the Corporation and to distribute such materials in
a manner distinguishable from that of ordinary commercial distribution; and
to engage in other lawful activities as will contribute to the foregoing
ARTICLE 3 - OFFICES
SECTION 3.1 Offices.
The registered office of the Corporation shall be located in the
Commonwealth. The Corporation may have any number of offices at such
places as the Board may determine.
ARTICLE 4 - SEAL
SECTION 4.1 Seal.
The Seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as the Board may
SECTION 4.2 Seal Not Required.
Except as otherwise required by statute, the affixation of the Seal shall
not be necessary to the valid execution, assignment, or endorsement by the
Corporation of any instrument in writing.
ARTICLE 5 - MEMBERSHIP
SECTION 5.1 No Members.
The Corporation shall have no "members" within the meaning of the
Pennsylvania Nonprofit Corporation Law.
ARTICLE 6 - BOARD OF DIRECTORS
SECTION 6.1 Board of Directors.
The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the
direction of the Board. The powers of the Corporation shall be exercised
by, or under the authority of, the Board, except as otherwise provided by
statute, these Bylaws, or a resolution of the Board.
SECTION 6.2 Qualification of Directors.
Each Director shall be a natural person of full age who need not be a
resident of the Commonwealth.
SECTION 6.3 Number and Election of Directors.
The Board shall consist of not fewer than one and not more than five
Directors. The Directors shall be determined by the Board at the annual
meeting of the Board. Each Director shall be elected for a perpetual term
or for such other term as the Board may determine by resolution.
SECTION 6.4 Term of Office.
Each Director shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which
he or she was elected and until his or her successor has been elected and
qualified or his or her earlier death, resignation, or removal.
SECTION 6.5 Procedure for Nomination of Candidates for Directors.
- No person shall be eligible for election as a Director at a meeting of
the Board unless he or she has been duly nominated in accordance with the
procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this Section.
- The President shall announce at the meeting of the Board the number of
Directors to be elected at the meeting, shall declare the nominations of
candidates for election as Director are open and shall call for nominations
from the floor. Nominations may be made by any Director who is entitled to
vote at the meeting. Nominations need not be seconded. After nominations
have been made, the President shall, on motion, declare the nominations
closed, and thereafter no further nominations may be made.
SECTION 6.6 Vacancies.
Vacancies in the Board, including vacancies resulting from an increase in
the number of Directors, shall be filled by a majority of the remaining
Directors though less than a quorum. Each person so elected shall be a
Director to serve for the balance of the unexpired term.
SECTION 6.7 Removal of Directors.
Any Director may be removed from office without assigning any cause by the
vote of a majority of the Board at any meeting of the Board.
SECTION 6.8 Resignations.
Any Director may resign at any time by giving written notice to the
Corporation. The resignation shall be effective upon receipt by the
Corporation or at such subsequent time as may be specified in the notice of
SECTION 6.9 Compensation of Directors.
The Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation, including
reimbursement of expenses, of Directors for their services as such.
SECTION 6.10 Voting Rights.
Every Director shall be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy.
SECTION 6.11 Voting by Proxy.
Any absent Director entitled to vote at any meeting of the Board may be
represented and may vote at such meeting by a proxy authorized in writing.
Such written authorization must specify the matter with respect to which
the proxy is granted, must be signed and dated by the Director granting the
proxy, and must be filed with the Secretary of the Corporation
ARTICLE 7 - COMMITTEES
SECTION 7.1 Establishment and Powers.
The Board may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the Directors,
establish one or more committees to consist of one or more Directors of the
Corporation. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution
of the Board, shall have and may exercise all of the powers and authority
of the Board, except that no committee shall have any power or authority as
to the following.
- The filling of vacancies in the Board.
- The adoption, amendment, or repeal of the Bylaws.
- The amendment or repeal of any resolution of the Board
- Action on matters committed by the Bylaws or by resolution of the
Board to another committee of the Board.
SECTION 7.2 Term.
Each committee of the Board shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.
SECTION 7.3 Committee Organization.
Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings and report the
same to the Board at each regular meeting. Each committee shall determine
its own organization and times and places of meetings unless the Board
ARTICLE 8 - MEETINGS OF DIRECTORS
SECTION 8.1 Place of Meetings.
Meetings of the Board may be held at such place within or without the
Commonwealth as the Board may appoint or as may be designated in the notice
of the meeting.
SECTION 8.2 Annual Meeting.
Unless the Board provides by resolution for a different time and date, the
annual meeting of the board, for the election of Directors, the election of
officers, or the transaction of any other business which may be brought
before the meeting, shall be held the third Friday of July. If such a day
is a legal holiday under the laws of the Commonwealth, the annual meeting
shall be held on the next succeeding business day which is not a legal
holiday under the laws of the Commonwealth.
Immediately after each election of Directors, the newly constituted Board
shall meet without prior notice at the place where such election of
Directors was held, or at any other place and time designated in a notice
given as provided in section 11.1, for the purposes of the election of
officers or the transaction of any other business.
SECTION 8.3 Regular Meetings.
Regular meetings of the Board may be held at such place and time as shall
be designated by standing resolution of the Board. If the date fixed for
any such meeting is a legal holiday under the laws of the Commonwealth, the
annual meeting shall be held on the next succeeding business day which is
not a legal holiday under the laws of the Commonwealth or at such other
time as may be determined by resolution of the Board. At such meetings, the
Directors shall transact such business as may properly be brought before
the meeting. Notice of the regular meetings need not be given.
SECTION 8.4 Special Meetings of the Board.
Special meetings of the Board may be called by the President or by any
Director and shall be held at such time and place as shall be designated in
the call for the meeting. Five days' notice of any special meeting shall be
given to each Director pursuant to Section 11.1 or by telephone. Such
notice shall state the time and place of such special meeting but need not
state the purpose of the special meeting.
SECTION 8.5 Quorum.
A majority of the Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction
of business. The acts of a majority of the Directors present at a meeting
at which a quorum is present shall be the acts of the Board.
SECTION 8.6 Participation in Meetings.
One or more Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board or a
committee thereof by means of conference telephone, interactive computer
network, or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons
participating in the meeting can communicated with each other.
SECTION 8.7 Organization.
Every meeting of the Board shall be presided over by the President or, in
the absence of the President, a chairman chosen by the President. The
Secretary or, in the absence of the Secretary, a person appointed by the
President, shall act as Secretary. The Treasurer or, in the absence of the
Treasurer, a person appointed by the President, shall act as Treasurer.
SECTION 8.8 Consent of Directors in Lieu of Meeting.
Any action which may be taken at a meeting of the Directors may be taken
without a meeting, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the
action so taken, shall be signed by all Directors and filed with the
Secretary of the Corporation.
ARTICLE 9 - OFFICERS
SECTION 9.1 Number.
The officers of the Corporation shall include a President, a Secretary, and
a Treasurer. The officers may include one or more Grammarian, Translation
Officer, Education Officer, Editor, and such other officers as the Board
may determine by resolution. Any number of offices may be held by the same
SECTION 9.2 Qualification of Officers.
The officers shall be natural persons, except that the Treasurer may be a
corporation. The officers may be, but are not required to be, Directors of
SECTION 9.3 Election and Term of Office.
The officers of the Corporation shall be elected by the Board at any
meeting of the Board and each shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.
SECTION 9.4 Removal of Officers.
Any officer may be removed from office without assigning any cause, by a
majority of the Board at any meeting of the Board.
SECTION 9.5 Resignations.
Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the
Corporation. The resignation shall be effective upon receipt by the
Corporation or at such subsequent time as may be specified in the notice of
SECTION 9.6 The President.
The President shall be the chief executive officer of the Corporation and
shall have general supervision over the business and operations of the
Corporation, subject to the control of the Board. The President shall
execute, in the name of the Corporation, deeds, mortgages, bonds,
contracts, and other instruments authorized by the Board, except in cases
where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board to
some other officer or agent of the Corporation. In general, the President
shall perform all duties incident to the office of President and such other
duties as may be assigned by the Board.
SECTION 9.7 The Secretary.
The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board. The Secretary shall
record all votes of the Board and the minutes of the meetings of the Board
in a book or books to be kept for that purpose. The Secretary shall see
that the required notices of meetings of the Board are given and that all
records and reports are properly kept and filed by the Corporation. The
Secretary shall be the custodian of the Seal of the Corporation and shall
see that it is affixed to all documents to be executed on behalf of the
Corporation under its Seal. In general, the Secretary shall perform all
duties incident to the office of Secretary and such other duties as may be
assigned by the Board or the President.
SECTION 9.8 The Treasurer.
The Treasurer shall have custody of corporate funds and securities and
shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in
books belonging to the Corporation. The Treasurer shall have full authority
to receive and give receipts for all money due and payable to the
Corporation, and to endorse checks, drafts, and warrants in its name and on
its behalf and to give full discharge for the same. The Treasurer shall
deposit all funds of the Corporation, except such as may be required for
the current use, in such banks or other places of deposit as the Board may
designate. In general, the Treasurer shall perform all duties incident to
the office of Treasurer and such other duties as may be assigned by the
Board or the President.
SECTION 9.9 The Grammarian.
The Grammarian shall exercise general supervision over the use and
publication of the Klingon language, including the overseeing of the
implementation and application of consistent grammatical standards. In
general, the Grammarian shall perform all duties incident to the office of
Grammarian and such other duties as may be assigned by the Board or the
SECTION 9.10 The Translation Officer.
The Translation Officer shall exercise general supervision over the
translation of materials from and into the Klingon language. In general,
the Translation Officer shall perform all duties incidental to the office
of Translation Officer and such other duties as may be assigned by the
Board or the President.
SECTION 9.11 The Education Officer.
The Education Officer shall exercise general supervision over the
educational programs, activities, or endeavors operated by the
Corporation. In general, the Education Officer shall perform all duties
incidental to the office of Education Officer and such other duties as may
be assigned by the Board or the President.
SECTION 9.12 The Editor.
The Editor shall exercise general supervision over the production and
publication of all academic journals or other similar publications relating
to the Klingon language which are created and distributed by the
Corporation. In general, the Editor shall perform all duties incidental to
the office of Editor and such other duties as may be assigned by the Board
or the President.
ARTICLE 10 - ADVISORY BOARD
SECTION 10.1 Advisory Board.
The Board may appoint an Advisory Board to counsel the Board with respect
to matters relating to instruction of the Klingon language, grammatical
practices and standards, development of educational materials, editorial
policies of publications of the Corporation, publication of ancillary
materials, and any other matters as may be determined by the Board.
SECTION 10.2 Election and Term of Office.
The members of the Advisory Board shall be elected by the Board at any
meeting of the Board and each shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.
SECTION 10.3 Removal of Members of the Advisory Board.
Any member of the Advisory Board may be removed from office without
assigning any cause, by a majority vote of the Board at any meeting of the
SECTION 10.4 Resignations.
Any member of the Advisory Board may resign at any time by giving written
notice to the Corporation. The resignation shall be effective upon receipt
by the Corporation or at such subsequent time as may be specified in the
notice of resignation.
ARTICLE 11 - NOTICE
SECTION 11.1 Written Notice.
Whenever written notice is required to be given to any person, it may be
given to such person, either personally or by sending a copy thereof by
first class or express mail, postage prepaid, or by telegram (with
messenger service specified), Telex, or TWX (with answer back received), or
courier service, charges prepaid, or by facsimile transmission, to his or
her address (or to his or her Telex, TWX, or facsimile number) appearing on
the book of the Corporation or, in the case of Directors, supplied to him
or the Corporation for the purpose of notice. If the notice sent by mail,
telegraph, or courier service, it shall be deemed to have been given to the
person entitled thereto when deposited in the United States mail, or with a
telegraph office or courier service for delivery to that person or, in the
case of Telex or TWX, when dispatched. A notice of meeting shall specify
the place, day, and hour of meeting and any other information required by
the Act. Except as otherwise provided by the Act or these Bylaws, when a
meeting is adjourned, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of the
adjourned meeting, or of the business to be transacted at an adjourned
meeting, other than by announcement at the meeting at which such
adjournment is taken.
SECTION 11.2 Waiver by Writing.
Whenever any written notice is required to be given, a waiver thereof in
writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to the notice, whether
before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the
giving of notice. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose
of, a meeting need be specified in the waiver of notice of the meeting.
SECTION 11.3 Waiver by Attendance.
Attendance of a person at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice
of the meeting, except where a person attends a meeting for the express
purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction
of any business because the meeting was not lawfully called or convened.
ARTICLE 12 - CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
SECTION 12.1 Interested Directors and Officers.
A contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its
Directors of officers or between the Corporation and any other corporation,
partnership, association, or other organization in which one or more of its
Directors or officers are directors or officers, or have a financial
interest, shall not be void or voidable solely for such reason, or solely
because the Director or officer is present at or participates in the
meeting of the Board which authorizes the contract or transaction is
authorized, or solely because his, her, or their votes are counted for that
Common or interested Directors may be counted in determining the presence
of a quorum at a meeting of the Board which authorizes the contract or
- the material facts as to the relationship or interest and as as to the
contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board and the
Board in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the
affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested Directors even though
the disinterested directors are less than a quorum; or
- the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the
time that it is authorized, approved, or ratified by the Board.
ARTICLE 13 - INDEMNIFICATION
SECTION 13.1 Indemnification.
The Corporation shall indemnify any Director or office of the Corporation
and who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any
proceeding (which shall include for the purposes of this Article any
threatened, pending, or completed action, or other proceeding whether
civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative (other than an action by
or in the right of the Corporation)) by reason of the fact that such person
was or is an authorized representative of the Corporation against expenses
(which shall include for purposes of this Article attorney's fees),
judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably
incurred by such person in connection with such action or proceeding if
such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably
believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the Corporation
and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to
believe such person's conduct was unlawful.
SECTION 13.2 Advancement of Expenses.
The Corporation shall pay the expenses (including attorneys' fees and
disbursements) actually and reasonably incurred in defending a proceeding
on behalf of any person entitled to indemnification under Section 13.1 in
advance of the final disposition of such proceeding upon receipt of an
undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay such amount if it shall
ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified
by the Corporation as authorized in this Article. The financial ability to
make such repayment shall not be prerequisite to the making of an advance.
SECTION 13.3 Security for Indemnification Obligations.
To further effect, satisfy, or secure the indemnification obligations
provided herein or otherwise, the Corporation may maintain insurance,
obtain a letter of credit, act as self-insurer, create a reserve, trust,
escrow, cash collateral, or other fund or account, enter into
indemnification agreements, pledge or grant a security interest in any
assets or properties of the Corporation, or use any other mechanism or
arrangement whatsoever in such amounts, at such costs, and upon other terms
and conditions as the Board shall deem appropriate.
SECTION 13.4 Reliance Upon Provisions.
Each person who shall act as a Director or officer of the Corporation shall
be deemed to be doing so in reliance upon the rights of indemnification
provided by this Article.
SECTION 13.5 Amendment or Repeal.
All rights of indemnification under this Article shall be deemed a contract
between the Corporation and the person entitled to indemnification under
this Article pursuant to which the Corporation and each such person intend
to be legally bound. Any repeal, amendment, or modification hereof shall be
prospective only and shall not limit, but may expand, any rights or
obligations in respect of any proceeding whether commenced prior to or
after such change to the extent such proceeding pertains to actions or
failures to act occurring prior to such change.
SECTION 13.6 Scope of Article.
The indemnification, as authorized by this Article, shall not be deemed
exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or
advancement of expenses may be entitled under any statue, agreement, vote
of shareholders or disinterested Directors or otherwise, both as to action
in an official capacity and as to action in any other capacity while
holding such office. The indemnification and advancement of expenses
provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article shall continue as to a
person who has ceased to be a Director or an officer of the Corporation in
respect of the proceedings pertaining to actions or failures to act
occurring prior to such time, and shall inure to the benefits of the heirs,
executors, and administrators of such person.
ARTICLE 14 - ANNUAL REPORT
SECTION 14.1 Annual Report.
The President and Treasurer shall present the Board at its annual meeting a
report, verified by the President and Treasurer or by a majority of the
Board, showing in appropriate detail the following:
The annual report of the Board shall be filed with the minutes of the
annual meetings of the Board.
- The assets and liabilities, including trust funds, of the Corporation
as of the end of the fiscal year immediately preceding the date of the
- The principal changes in assets and liabilities, including trust
funds, during the year immediately preceding the date of the report.
- The revenue or receipts of the Corporation, both unrestricted and
restricted to particular purposes, for the year immediately preceding the
date of the report, including separate data with respect to each trust fund
held by or for the Corporation.
- The expenses or disbursements of the Corporation, for both general and
restricted purposes, during the year immediately preceding the date of the
report, including separate data with respect to each trust fund held by or
for the Corporation.
ARTICLE 15 - TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS
SECTION 15.1 Real Property.
The Corporation shall make no purchase of real property nor sell, mortgage,
lease away, or otherwise dispose of its real property, unless authorized by
the vote of two-thirds (2/3) of the Board. If the real property is subject
to a trust, the conveyance away shall be free of trust and the trust shall
be impinged upon the proceeds of such conveyance.
SECTION 15.2 Negotiable Instruments.
All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be
signed by such officer or officers as the Board may designate.
ARTICLE 16 - CORPORATE RECORDS
SECTION 16.1 Corporate Records.
The Corporation shall keep at its registered office or at its principal
place of business (a) an original or duplicate record of the proceedings of
the Board, (b) the original or a copy of its Bylaws, including all
amendments thereto to date, and (c) appropriate, complete, and accurate
books or records of account.
ARTICLE 17 - AMENDMENTS
SECTION 17.1 Amendments.
The Bylaws of the Corporation may be amended by a majority vote of the
Board at any meeting after written notice of such purpose has been given.
ARTICLE 18 - MISCELLANEOUS
SECTION 18.1 Fiscal Year.
The fiscal year of the Corporation shall begin on the first day of January
and end on the last day of December.
SECTION 18.2 Number.
The singular when used in these Bylaws shall also refer to the plural, and
vice versa, as appropriate.
SECTION 18.3 Headings.
In interpreting these Bylaws, the headings of articles shall not be
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